portuguese | english Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria ISSN print 1516-4446
ISSN on-line 1809-452X
JCR IF 2017: 2.093
Fully open access
No submission fees
No publication charges
Restricted Access:

Ahead of Print

Is emotional functioning related to academic achievement among university students? Results from a cross-sectional Iranian sample
Dena Sadeghi Bahmani; Parviz Faraji; Robab Faraji; Undine E. Lang; Edith Holsboer-Trachsler; Serge Brand

OBJECTIVE: Whereas several studies have predicted academic achievement (AA) as a function of favorable cognitive factors and low negative emotional functioning (such as depression and anxiety), little is known about its associations with cognitive-emotional states of positive emotional functioning, such as social satisfaction. The present study sought to evaluate associations of AA with dimensions of negative and positive emotional functioning. METHOD: This cross-sectional study enrolled 275 students (mean age, 21.24 years; 66.1% females), who completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic parameters and AA scores, as well as measures of loneliness and depression (representing negative emotional functioning) and social satisfaction (representing positive emotional functioning). RESULTS: Lower scores for negative and higher scores for positive emotional functioning were associated with higher AA scores. Multiple regression analysis showed that AA was predicted independently by both low negative and high positive emotional functioning. No gender differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of results observed in this study suggests that opposing dimensions of emotional functioning are independently related to AA. Students, educators, and health professionals dealing with students should focus both on increasing social satisfaction and on decreasing feelings of loneliness and depression.

Descriptors: Negative emotions; positive emotions; students; academic achievement; loneliness; depression; social satisfaction

The slant of the forehead as a craniofacial feature of impulsiveness
J. David Guerrero-Apolo; J. Blas Navarro-Pastor; Antonio Bulbena-Vilarrasa; Julián Gabarre-Mir

OBJECTIVE: Impulsiveness has been the subject of much research, but little is known about the possible relationship between craniofacial anatomy and impulsiveness. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between one aspect of craniofacial structure (the angle of inclination of the forehead) and impulsiveness. METHOD: Photographs in profile were obtained from 131 volunteers who had been fined for driving at high speed and were undergoing a court-mandated driving license point-recovery course. They completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P), and Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (V). The angle of the slant of the forehead was measured with a photographic support and a protractor. RESULTS: High positive concordance was found between forehead inclination and 14 out of the 15 impulsiveness factors studied. CONCLUSIONS: The angle of inclination of the forehead was significantly associated with self-reported impulsiveness in this sample of traffic violators.

Descriptors: Craniofacial anatomy; impulsiveness; forehead; BIS-11

By the book: ADHD prevalence in medical students varies with analogous methods of addressing DSM items
Paulo Mattos; Bruno P. Nazar; Rosemary Tannock

OBJECTIVE: The marked increase in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among university students gives rise to questions about how best to diagnose in this setting. The aim of the present study was to calculate ADHD prevalence in a large non-clinical sample of medical students using a stepwise design and to determine whether ADHD diagnosis varies if interviewees use additional probing procedures to obtain examples of positive DSM items. METHODS: A total of 726 students were screened with the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and invited for an interview with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) adapted for adults. RESULTS: The ASRS was positive for 247 students (37%), although only 83 (7.9%) received an ADHD diagnosis. ASRS sensitivity and specificity rates were 0.97 and 0.40, respectively. Probing procedures were used with a subgroup of 226 students, which decreased the number of ADHD diagnoses to 12 (4.5%). CONCLUSION: Probing for an individual's real-life examples during the K-SADS interview almost halved ADHD prevalence rate based on the ASRS and K-SADS, which rendered the rate consistent with that typically reported for young adults. In reclassified cases, although examples of inattention did not match the corresponding DSM item, they often referred to another DSM inattention item.

Descriptors: ADHD; university services; student; diagnostic interviews; prevalence

Active Brazilian crack cocaine users: nutritional, anthropometric, and drug use profiles
Mariana Escobar; Juliana N. Scherer; Cassia M. Soares; Luciano S.P. Guimarães; Martine E. Hagen; Lisia von Diemen; Flavio Pechansky

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the nutritional status of crack users and to analyze its correlation with drug use profiles. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 108 crack users. Anthropometric data were assessed through body mass index (BMI) and bioimpedance (BIA) measurements. A blood test to analyze hematocrit, hemoglobin, glucose, and lipid profiles was also performed. Crack use was determined through a standardized interview. RESULTS: Based on BMI and BIA, most individuals were eutrophic (about 70%). Regarding hematological parameters, we found that hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were below normal for 32.4 and 30.6% of patients, respectively. Considering normal parameters, a large part of the sample (60.2%) had low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of triglycerides (38%). There were no significant correlations between drug profile and nutritional variables. CONCLUSION: This is a pioneering study that examines the nutritional status of crack users. Our results showed that most crack users present normal anthropometric findings and the prevalence of underweight is low. However, blood analysis showed changes and a specific type of malnutrition.

Descriptors: Crack cocaine; nutritional assessment; nutritional status; biochemical parameters

Religiosity, depression, and quality of life in bipolar disorder: a two-year prospective study
André Stroppa; Fernando A. Colugnati; Harold G. Koenig; Alexander Moreira-Almeida

OBJECTIVE: Few quantitative studies have examined the effect of religious involvement on the course of bipolar disorder (BD). We investigated the effects of religious activity and coping behaviors on the course of depression, mania, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with BD. METHODS: Two-year longitudinal study of 168 outpatients with BD. Linear regression was used to examine associations between religious predictors and outcome variables (manic symptoms, depression, QoL), controlling for sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Among the 158 patients reassessed after 2 years, positive religious coping at T1 predicted better QoL across all four domains: physical (β = 10.2, 95%CI 4.2 to 16.1), mental (β = 13.4, 95%CI 7.1 to 19.7), social (β = 10.5, 95%CI 3.6 to 17.33), and environmental (β =11.1, 95%Ci 6.2 to 16.1) at T2. Negative religious coping at T1 predicted worse mental (β = -28.1, 95%CI -52.06 to -4.2) and environmental (β = -20.4, 95%CI -39.3 to -1.6) QoL. Intrinsic religiosity at T1 predicted better environmental QoL (β = 9.56, 95%CI 2.76 to 16.36) at T2. Negative religious coping at T1 predicted manic symptoms (β = 4.1) at T2. CONCLUSION: Religiosity/spirituality (R/S) may influence the QoL of patients with BD over time, even among euthymic patients. Targeting R/S (especially positive and negative religious coping) in psychosocial interventions may enhance the quality of recovery in patients with BD.

Descriptors: Bipolar disorder; religion; spirituality; quality of life; mania

Diagnosing dementia in lower educated older persons: validation of a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale (RUDAS)
Narahyana B. de Araujo; Thomas R. Nielsen; Knut Engedal; Maria L. Barca; Evandro S. Coutinho; Jerson Laks

OBJECTIVE: To validate the Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale for use in Brazil (RUDAS-BR). METHODS: We first completed an English-Brazilian Portuguese translation and back-translation of the RUDAS. A total of 135 subjects over 60 years of age were included: 65 cognitively healthy and 70 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to the DSM-IV and Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) criteria. All participants completed an interview and were screened for depression. The receiver operating characteristic curves of the RUDAS were compared with those of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) regarding the sensitivity and specificity of cutoffs, taking education into consideration. RESULTS: The areas under the curve were similar for the RUDAS-BR (0.87 [95%CI 0.82-0.93]) and the MMSE (0.84 [95%CI 0.7-0.90]). RUDAS-BR scores < 23 indicated dementia, with sensitivity of 81.5% and specificity of 76.1%. MMSe < 24 indicated dementia, with sensitivity of 72.3% and specificity of 78.9%. The cutoff score was influenced by years of education on the MMSE, but not on the RUDAS-BR. CONCLUSIONS: The RUDAS-BR is as accurate as the MMSE in screening for dementia. RUDAS-BR scores were not influenced by education. The RUDAS-BR may improve the cognitive assessment of older persons who are illiterate or of lower educational attainment.

Descriptors: Dementia; Alzheimer's disease; education; psychiatric; tests/interviews; psychometric; cognitive neuroscience; diagnosis and classification

Psychoactive substance abuse and dependence and its association with anxiety disorders: a population-based study of young adults in Brazil
Mariana B. de Matos; Christian L. de Mola; Jéssica P. Trettim; Karen Jansen; Ricardo A. da Silva; Luciano D. de Mattos Souza; Liliane da Costa Ores; Mariane L. Molina; Fernanda T. Coelho; Ricardo T. Pinheiro; Luciana de A. Quevedo

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between abuse of and dependence on different psychoactive substances and the presence of anxiety disorders in a sample of young adults from a city in southern Brazil. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2009, we carried out a cross-sectional, population-based study of individuals aged 18-24 years who lived in Pelotas, a city in southern Brazil. We evaluated anxiety disorders using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0 (MINI), and use of psychoactive substances with the Alcohol, Smoking, and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSiSt 2.0/0MS). We used Fisher's exact test for univariate analysis, and Poisson regression models with robust variance for multivariable analysis. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1,560 young adults. The overall prevalence of abuse/dependence was 26.9% for alcohol, 24.9% for tobacco, and 7.3% for illicit substances. Individuals with agoraphobia had a 32% higher prevalence of tobacco abuse/dependence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.32 [95%CI 1.01-1.74]). Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) had a 2.41-fold (95%CI 1.22-4.77) and 1.76-fold (95%CI 1.00-3.11) higher prevalence of illicit substance abuse/dependence, respectively. CONCLUSION: In this population-based sample, we found associations between GAD, PTSD, and increased prevalence of illicit substance abuse/dependence. In addition, individuals with agoraphobia seem to have increased tobacco abuse/dependence.

Descriptors: Epidemiology; adolescents; alcohol abuse; anxiety disorder, generalized; adult development

Exposure to violence: associations with psychiatric disorders in Brazilian youth
Thiago M. Fidalgo; Zila M. Sanchez; Sheila C. Caetano; Solange Andreoni; Adriana Sanudo; Qixuan Chen; Sílvia S. Martins

OBJECTIVE: The effects of exposure to violent events in adolescence have not been sufficiently studied in middle-income countries such as Brazil. The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among 12-year-olds in two neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status (SES) levels in São Paulo and to examine the influence of previous violent events and SES on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Students from nine public schools in two neighborhoods of São Paulo were recruited. Students and parents answered questions about demographic characteristics, SES, urbanicity and violent experiences. All participants completed the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) to obtain DSM-IV diagnoses. The data were analyzed using weighted logistic regression with neighborhood stratification after adjusting for neighborhood characteristics, gender, SES and previous traumatic events. RESULTS: The sample included 180 individuals, of whom 61.3% were from low SES and 39.3% had experienced a traumatic event. The weighted prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 21.7%. Having experienced a traumatic event and having low SES were associated with having an internalizing (adjusted OR = 5.46; 2.17-13.74) or externalizing disorder (adjusted OR = 4.33; 1.85-10.15). CONCLUSIONS: Investment in reducing SES inequalities and preventing violent events during childhood may improve the mental health of youths from low SES backgrounds.

Descriptors: Adolescents; child psychiatry; epidemiology; social and political issues; violence/aggression

Validation of the Mnemonic Similarity Task - Context Version
Giulia A. Aldi; Iris Lange; Cristiana Gigli; Lies Goossens; Koen R. Schruers; Fiammetta Cosci

OBJECTIVE: Pattern separation (PS) is the ability to represent similar experiences as separate, nonoverlapping representations. It is usually assessed via the Mnemonic Similarity Task - Object Version (MST-O) which, however, assesses PS performance without taking behavioral context discrimination into account, since it is based on pictures of everyday simple objects on a white background. We here present a validation study for a new task, the Mnemonic Similarity Task - Context Version (MST-C), which is designed to measure PS while taking behavioral context discrimination into account by using real-life context photographs. METHODS: Fifty healthy subjects underwent the two MST tasks to assess convergent evidence. Instruments assessing memory and attention were also administered to study discriminant evidence. The test-retest reliability of MST-C was analyzed. RESULTS: Weak evidence supports convergent validity between the MST-C task and the MST-O as measures of PS (rs = 0.464; p < 0.01); PS performance assessed via the MST-C did not correlate with memory or attention; a moderate test-retest reliability was found (rs = 0.595; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The MST-C seems useful for assessing PS performance conceptualized as the ability to discriminate complex and realistic spatial contexts. Future studies are welcome to evaluate the validity of the MST-C task as a measure of PS in clinical populations.

Descriptors: Pattern separation; context discrimination; mnemonic similarity task; Mnemonic Similarity Task - Object Version; Behavioral Pattern Separation Task

Clinical practice guidelines for post-stroke depression in China
Fu-ying Zhao*; Ying-ying Yue*; Lei Li*; Sen-yang Lang; Ming-wei Wang; Xiang-dong Du; Yun-long Deng; Ai-qin Wu; Yong-gui Yuan

Post-stroke depression (PSD) is a very common complication that leads to increased physical disability, poor functional outcome, and higher mortality. Therefore, early detection and treatment are very important. Since there are currently no specific guidelines for this disorder in China, the purpose of this study was to develop PSD guidelines and provide suggestions for clinicians and related workers.

Descriptors: Post-stroke depression; diagnosis; treatment

The presentation of the mind-brain problem in leading psychiatry journals
Alexander Moreira-Almeida; Saulo de F. Araujo; C. Robert Cloninger

OBJECTIVE: The mind-brain problem (MBP) has marked implications for psychiatry, but has been poorly discussed in the psychiatric literature. This paper evaluates the presentation of the MBP in the three leading general psychiatry journals during the last 20 years. METHODS: Systematic review of articles on the MBP published in the three general psychiatry journals with the highest impact factor from 1995 to 2015. The content of these articles was analyzed and discussed in the light of contemporary debates on the MBP. RESULTS: Twenty-three papers, usually written by prestigious authors, explicitly discussed the MBP and received many citations (mean = 130). The two main categories were critiques of dualism and defenses of physicalism (mind as a brain product). These papers revealed several misrepresentations of theoretical positions and lacked relevant contemporary literature. Without further discussion or evidence, they presented the MBP as solved, dualism as an old-fashioned or superstitious idea, and physicalism as the only rational and empirically confirmed option. CONCLUSION: The MBP has not been properly presented and discussed in the three leading psychiatric journals in the last 20 years. The few articles on the topic have been highly cited, but reveal misrepresentations and lack of careful philosophical discussion, as well as a strong bias against dualism and toward a materialist/physicalist approach to psychiatry.

Descriptors: Body-mind relations; psychiatry; philosophy; neurosciences; neuropsychiatry

Psychiatric disorders in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a case-control study
Mireille C. Almeida; Denise A. Claudino; Ruth B. Grigolon; Bacy Fleitlich-Bilyk; Angélica M. Claudino

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes, the factors associated with its presence, and to test the reliability of a screening tool for use in clinical settings. METHODS: Eighty-one adolescents were enrolled in this case-control study, including 36 diabetic participants and 45 controls. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected and psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses were obtained from adolescents and their parents using a screening tool (Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire) and a semi-structured interview (Development and Well-Being Assessment). RESULTS: Psychiatric disorders were identified in 22.2% of the sample (30.56% among diabetic adolescents vs. 15.56% of controls: OR = 2.39, 95%CI 0.82-6.99; p = 0.11). Overweight (body mass index percentile ≥ 85) was the only factor associated with psychiatric disorder (OR = 3.07; 95%C11.03-9.14; p = 0.04). Compared to the semi-structured interview, the screening instrument showed 80% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 88.9% positive predictive value and 92.3% negative predictive value for the presence of psychiatric diagnoses in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric morbidity was high in this sample of adolescents, especially among those with diabetes. Routine use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire can help with early detection of psychiatric disorders in this at-risk group.

Descriptors: Adolescent; epidemiology; child psychiatry; diabetes mellitus; type 1

Art therapy as an adjuvant treatment for depression in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial
Eliana C. Ciasca; Rita C. Ferreira; Carmen L.A. Santana; Orestes V. Forlenza; Glenda D. dos Santos; Paula S. Brum; Paula V. Nunes

OBJECTIVE: There are few quantitative studies on art therapy for the treatment of depression. The objective of this study was to evaluate if art therapy is beneficial as an adjuvant treatment for depression in the elderly. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, single-blind study was carried out in a sample of elderly women with major depressive disorder (MDD) stable on pharmacotherapy. The experimental group (EG) was assigned to 20 weekly art therapy sessions (90 min/session). The control group (CG) was not subjected to any adjuvant intervention. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 20 weeks, using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and cognitive measures. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age revealed that women in EG (n=31) had significant improvement in GDS (p = 0.007), BDI (p = 0.025), and BAI (p = 0.032) scores as compared with controls (n=25). No difference was found in the cognitive measures. CONCLUSION: Art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for MDD in the elderly can improve depressive and anxiety symptoms. CLICINAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: RBR-2YXY7Z

Descriptors: Art therapy; depression; anxiety; elderly patients; clinical trial

Profile and costs involved in long-term compulsory hospitalization of psychiatric patients
Fernando Venturini; Eduardo C. de Moura; Paula A. Bastos; Lourdes C. Martins; Yara D. Fragoso

OBJECTIVE: Involuntary hospitalization for acute psychiatry cases can be acceptable when there is potential harm. However, there are few reasons for a patient committed on these grounds to stay in an institution for a long period. The objective of the present study was to identify the profile and costs of compulsory hospitalizations over 20 days in a public psychiatric hospital in the coastal region of the state of Sao Paulo. METHODS: Retrospective data were collected from the medical records of 1,064 patients admitted between July 2013 and June 2016 from an intensive mental healthcare unit in Santos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: Records were found of 527 patients who had been hospitalized for at least 21 days during the study period. Long-term hospitalization related to judicial mandates represented 5.9% of the total sample. These patients stayed in the hospital for an average period of 142 days, while patients hospitalized for any other reason stayed an average period of 35 days (p < 0.001). The cost of a longterm court-ordered hospitalization averaged US$ 21,311 per patient. CONCLUSION: Judicial mandate has been an important reason for the long-term hospitalization of chronic psychiatric patients in Santos, Brazil.

Descriptors: Chronic psychiatric disease; hospitalization; psychiatry hospital; drug abuse; psychosis

Introducing care management to Brazil's alcohol and substance use disorder population
Ilana Pinsky; Camila Bernal; Lindsey Vuolo; Charles Neighbors

Brazil has a sizable alcohol and substance use disorder (ASUD) population, yet there are considerable gaps in treatment access and retention. ASUD, a chronic medical condition, is highly comorbid with medical and behavioral health disorders. This indicates a need for more targeted interventions in order to achieve health care integration (a major goal of Brazil's health care system). Care management - that is, the organization of patient care by an institution - is a viable strategy to engage individuals with ASUD who might benefit from treatment but are not aware of or do not use the available resources, as well as to help maintain patients in treatment. Care management is considered an essential supplement to the treatment of chronic disease. The objective of this article is to discuss the applicability of care management for the treatment of ASUD within the public health care system in Brazil. We describe models of care management that have been adopted internationally and identify the feasibility and advantages for its adoption in Brazil.

Descriptors: care management; substance use; Brazil; treatment integration

Impact of a provider training program on the treatment of children with autism spectrum disorder at psychosocial care units in Brazil
Luciana C. Silva; Maria C.T.V. Teixeira; Edith L. Ribeiro; Cristiane S. Paula

OBJECTIVE: To develop, implement, and verify the impact of a training program for health care providers working with children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in psychosocial care centers for children and adolescents (Centro de Atenção Psicossocial à Infancia e à Adolescencia - CAPSi) in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study was conducted with 14 professionals from four CAPSi units. The training program consisted of six phases: 1) pre-intervention observation; 2) meeting with staff to assess the main needs of the training program; 3) developing materials for training and evaluation; 4) meetings to discuss program implementation; 5) a final meeting for case discussion and evaluation; and 6) distance supervision. Three measures were used to evaluate the training program: i) the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices (KAP) questionnaire; ii) videos containing questions designed to assess program comprehension; and iii) a satisfaction survey. RESULTS: Thirteen videos were produced to as visual aids for use during the training program, and a further 26 videos were developed to evaluate it. The program was well evaluated by the participants. The video responses and kAp questionnaire scores suggest that staff knowledge and attitudes improved after training. CONCLUSION: The positive findings of this study suggest that the tested training program is feasible for use with multidisciplinary teams working in the CAPSi environment.

Descriptors: Child psychiatry; autism; community mental health; education, psychiatric; interdisciplinary relations

Intermittent theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation for autism spectrum disorder: an open-label pilot study
Caio Abujadi; Paul E. Croarkin; Bianca B. Bellini; Helena Brentani; Marco A. Marcolin

OBJECTIVE: Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) modulates synaptic plasticity more efficiently than standard repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivery and may be a promising modality for neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). At present there are few effective interventions for prefrontal cortex dysfunction in ASD. We report on an open-label, pilot study of intermittent TBS (iTBS) to target executive function deficits and restricted, repetitive behaviors in male children and adolescents with ASD. METHODS: Ten right-handed, male participants, aged 9-17 years with ASD were enrolled in an open-label trial of iTBS treatment. Fifteen sessions of neuronavigated iTBS at 100% motor threshold targeting the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were delivered over 3 weeks. RESULTS: Parent report scores on the Repetitive Behavior Scale Revised and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale demonstrated improvements with iTBS treatment. Participants demonstrated improvements in perseverative errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and total time for the Stroop test. The iTBS treatments were well tolerated with no serious adverse effects. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results suggest that further controlled interventional studies of iTBS for ASD are warranted.

Descriptors: Autism spectrum disorder; intermittent theta burst stimulation; noninvasive brain stimulation; theta-burst stimulation; repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

Brazilian version of the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ): cross-cultural adaptation and evidence of validity and reliability
Jonas J. de Paula; Danielle S. Costa; Débora M. de Miranda; Marco A. Romano-Silva

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive failures are simple mistakes in routine activities, such as forgetting commitments and experiencing difficulty concentrating. The Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ) was designed to assess the frequency of these errors in everyday life. Although widely used in psychiatry and psychology, both in clinical and research settings, it has not been adapted for use in Brazil. Our objective was to perform cross-cultural adaptation of the CFQ for the Brazilian reality and assess its validity and reliability. METHODS: The original version of the CFQ was translated into Brazilian Portuguese by two independent researchers, analyzed by a multidisciplinary board of experts, and back-translated into English. The final version was administered to 225 adults. Validity was assessed by correlation with the Self Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20) and the Adult Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder SelfReport Scale (ASRS-18). Reliability was analyzed by calculating internal consistency and test-retest stability. RESULTS: The adapted version of the CFQ showed significant correlations with SRQ-20 (r = -0.311), ASRS-18 inattention (r = 0.696), and hyperactivity/impulsivity (r = 0.405) scores. Reliability analysis suggests high internal consistency (0.906) and temporal stability (0.813). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the CFQ showed moderate correlations with other measures of mental health, as well as adequate reliability.

Descriptors: Cognitive neuroscience; diagnosis and classification; memory; occupational psychiatry; psychometric tests/interviews

Changes in energy and motor activity: core symptoms of bipolar mania and depression?
Elie Cheniaux; Rafael de A. da Silva; Cristina M. Santana; Alberto Filgueiras

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how well symptom rating scales differentiate bipolar disorder (BD) episode types METHODS: One hundred and six patients with BD were followed for 13 years. At each visit, the following clinical scales were administered: Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and Clinical Global Impressions scale for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP). To perform a comparison between the affective states of BP, three time points in each patient's follow-up period were chosen for evaluation: the most severe manic episode, the most severe depressive episode, and the euthymic period with least symptoms. Canonical discriminant analyses (CDA) were performed to identify which symptoms best discriminated episodes. RESULTS: CDA revealed HAM-D was worse than YMRS and CGI-BP to discriminate mood states. The items evaluating increased motor activity in YMRS (2, increased motor activity/energy) and HAM-D (9, agitation) were the best to distinguish mania, depression, and euthymia. In contrast, HAM-D item8 (retardation) and the HAM-D and YMRS items related to mood symptoms were less important and precise. CONCLUSION: Higher levels of energy or activity should be considered a core symptom of mania. However, our results do not confirm the association between a decrease in energy or activity and depression. HAM-D probably does not assess motor activity adequately.

Descriptors: Bipolar disorder; discriminant analysis; motor activity; energy

Can parenting practices predict externalizing behavior problems among children with hearing impairment?
María J. Pino; Rosa A. Castillo; Antonio Raya; Javier Herruzo

OBJECTIVE: To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices. METHODS: The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls. RESULTS: Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%. CONCLUSION: Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.

Descriptors: Child psychiatry; families; child rearing; hearing loss; disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders

Childhood emotional and behavior problems and their associations with cesarean delivery
Erigene Rutayisire; Xiaoyan Wu; Kun Huang; Shuman Tao; Yunxiao Chen; Fangbiao Tao

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of childhood emotional and behavioral problems and examine their associations with cesarean delivery. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 8,900 preschoolers from 35 kindergartens in four cities in East China. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and provided other information. Children's emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using five subscales of the SDQ. Mode of delivery was classified as vaginal or cesarean section (CS); in sub-analyses, we divided CS into elective or emergency delivery. Logistic regression was used to examine associations. RESULTS: A total of 1,209 (13.6%) children had a total SDQ score within abnormal range; 25.5% had peer problems within abnormal range, 9.0% had abnormal emotional symptoms, 13.9% had abnormal conduct problems, 18.9% had abnormal hyperactivity problems, and 16.2% were rated abnormal in pro-social behavior. Overall, 67.3% of the children who participated were delivered by CS. In fully adjusted analysis, CS was significantly associated with abnormal total SDQ score (OR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.10-1.46; p < 0.05) and pro-social behavior (OR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.12-1.45; p < 0.0001). No significant association was found between CS and risk of having conduct problems (OR 1.13; 95%CI 0.98-1.29), peer problems (OR 1.11; 95%CI 0.99-1.24), hyperactivity (OR 1.02; 95%CI 0.91-1.15), or emotional problems (OR 1.06; 95%CI 0.90-1.24). CONCLUSION: In this sample, CS was associated with risk of behavioral problems, but not with emotional problems. Further research is needed to better understand these associations.

Descriptors: Problem behavior; cesarean section; delivery mode; pregnancy; preschool children

Bipolar disorders: is there an influence of seasonality or photoperiod?
Andrea Aguglia; Antonio Borsotti; Giuseppe Maina

OBJECTIVE: To increase understanding of the influence of photoperiod variation in patients with bipolar disorders.
METHODS: We followed a sample of Italian bipolar patients over a period of 24 months, focusing on inpatients. All patients admitted to the Psychiatric Inpatient Unit of San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital in Orbassano (Turin, Italy) between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2015 were recruited. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected.
RESULTS: Seven hundred and thirty patients were included. The admission rate for bipolar patients was significantly higher during May, June and July, when there was maximum sunlight exposure, although no seasonal pattern was found. Patients with (hypo)manic episodes were admitted more frequently during the spring and during longer photoperiods than those with major depressive episodes.
CONCLUSIONS: Photoperiod is a key element in bipolar disorder, not only as an environmental factor but also as an important clinical parameter that should be considered during treatment.

Descriptors: Bipolar disorder; seasonality; photoperiod; sunlight

Comorbid addictive behaviors in disordered gamblers with psychosis
Hyoun S. Kim; Briana D. Cassetta; David C. Hodgins; Daniel S. McGrath; Lianne M. Tomfohr-Madsen; Hermano Tavares

OBJECTIVE: While it has been shown that disordered gamblers with psychosis are at increased risk for comorbid psychopathology, it is unclear whether this dual-diagnosis population is also at greater risk of problematic engagement with comorbid addictive behaviors.
METHODS: We tested for association between disordered gambling with psychosis and comorbid addictive behaviors in a sample of 349 treatment-seeking disordered gamblers.
RESULTS: Twenty-five (7.2%) disordered gamblers met criteria for psychosis. Disordered gamblers with psychosis were no more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for current alcohol/substance use disorder than disordered gamblers without psychosis. However, this dual-disorder population reported greater misuse of shopping, food bingeing, caffeine, and prescription drugs. When controlling for multiple comparisons, binge eating was the only addictive behavior to remain significant.
CONCLUSION: Given these findings, a comprehensive assessment of addictive behaviors - specifically food bingeing - in this population may be warranted.

Descriptors: Disordered gambling; psychosis; addictive behaviors; comorbidity

Cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire - Short Version (PSDQ) for use in Brazil
Thais D. Oliveira; Danielle de S. Costa; Maicon R. Albuquerque; Leandro F. Malloy-Diniz; Débora M. Miranda; Jonas J. de Paula

OBJECTIVE: The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) is used worldwide to assess three styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) and seven dimensions of parenting. In this study, we adapted the short version of the PSDQ for use in Brazil and investigated its validity and reliability.
METHODS: Participants were 451 mothers of children aged 3 to 18 years, though sample size varied with analyses. The translation and adaptation of the PSDQ followed a rigorous methodological approach. Then, we investigated the content, Criterion, and construct validity of the adapted instrument.
RESULTS: The scale content validity index (S-CVI) was considered adequate (0.97). There was evidence of internal validity, with the PSDQ dimensions showing strong correlations with their higher-order parenting styles. Confirmatory factor analysis endorsed the three-factor, second-order solution (i.e., three styles consisting of seven dimensions). The PSDQ showed convergent validity with the validated Brazilian version of the Parenting Styles Inventory (Inventário de Estilos Parentais - IEP), as well as external validity, as it was associated with several instruments measuring sociodemographic and behavioral/emotional-problem variables.
CONCLUSION: The PSDQ is an effective and reliable psychometric instrument to assess childrearing strategies according to Baumrind's model of parenting styles.

Descriptors: Child psychiatry; tests/interviews - psychometric; other psychological issue; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; psychotherapy

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in children with first degree relatives diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder
Priscila Chacon; Elisa Bernardes; Lívia Faggian; Marcelo Batistuzzo; Tais Moriyama; Eurípedes C. Miguel; Guilherme V. Polanczyk

OBJECTIVE: A first-degree relative affected by obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in childhood is an important risk factor for developing the disorder in adulthood. The relationship between a family history of OCD and the presence of OCS and its correlates in childhood is not well established.
METHODS: A total of 66 children whose parents or siblings have been diagnosed with OCD were assessed for the presence of OCS and clinical correlates.
RESULTS: Three children (4.5%) were reported to have received an OCD diagnosis and another 26 (39.4%) were identified as having OCS. Children with OCS had higher rates of coercive behavior and came from families with lower socioeconomic status. Contamination/cleaning dimension symptoms in the proband were associated with OCS in the assessed children.
CONCLUSION: OCS are frequent among family members of individuals with OCD and are associated with socioeconomic status, coercive behaviors and proband contamination/cleaning symptoms. Future longitudinal studies should test the risk of developing OCD in association with these characteristics.

Descriptors: Obsessive-compulsive symptoms; children; familial OCD; coercive behaviors

Satisfaction and burden of mental health personnel: data from healthcare services for substance users and their families
Juliana B. Hilgert; Augusto B. Bidinotto; Mayra P. Pachado; Leticia S. Fara; Lisia von Diemen; Raquel B. De Boni; Mary C. Bozzetti; Fiavio Pechansky

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate satisfaction and burden of mental health personnel providing mental health services for substance users and their families.
METHOD: Five hundred twenty-seven mental health workers who provide treatment for substance users in five Brazilian states were interviewed. Data on sociodemographic characteristics and measures of satisfaction (SATIS-BR) and burden of mental health personnel (IMPACTO-BR) were collected.
RESULTS: Type of mental health service and educational attainment were associated with degree of satisfaction and burden. Therapeutic community workers and those with a primary education level reported being more satisfied with the treatment offered to patients, their engagement in service activities, and working conditions. Workers from psychosocial care centers, psychosocial care centers focused on alcohol and other drugs, and social care referral centers (both general and specialized), as well as workers with a higher education, reported feeling overburdened.
CONCLUSION: This study offers important information regarding the relationship of mental health personnel with their work. Care providers within this sample reported an overall high level of job satisfaction, while perceived burden differed by type of service and educational attainment. To our knowledge, this is the first study with a sample of mental health professionals working with substance users across five Brazilian states.

Descriptors: Substance-related disorders; occupational health; mental health services; mental health personnel

Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on neurotrophic factors in patients with major depressive disorder
Sally K. da Silva; Carolina Wiener; Gabriele Ghisleni; Jean P. Oses; Karen Jansen; Mariane L. Molina; Ricardo Silva; Luciano D. Souza

OBJECTIVE: To correlate neurotrophic factors - brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and beta-nerve growth factor (beta-NGF) - and severity of depressive symptoms in patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) undergoing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).
METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study, participants were selected by convenience and received 16 sessions of CbT. The outcomes of interest were severity of depressive symptoms and changes in neurotrophic factor levels after CBT. The differences between variables before and after treatment (deltas) were analyzed.
RESULTS: Patients had significant changes in symptom severity after treatment. No significant associations were found between Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) scores and any independent variable. No correlations were observed between BDNF or GDNF levels and BDI scores before or after treatment, although there was a trend toward significant differences in beta-NGF levels.
CONCLUSION: BDNF, beta-NGF, and GDNF were not influenced by the effects of CBT on depressive symptoms.

Descriptors: Blood; neurotrophic factor; major depressive disorder; cognitive-behavioral therapy

Gender-related dimensions of childhood adversities in the general population
Bruno M. Coêlho; Geilson L. Santana; Maria C. Viana; Laura H. Andrade; Yuan-Pang Wang

OBJECTIVE: Childhood adversities (CAs) comprise a group of negative experiences individuals may suffer in their lifetimes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cluster discrimination of CAs through psychometric determination of the common attributes of such experiences for men and women.
METHODS: Parental mental illness, substance misuse, criminality, death, divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical illness, and economic adversity were assessed in a general-population sample (n=5,037). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis determined gender-related dimensions of CA. The contribution of each individual adversity was explored through Rasch analysis.
RESULTS: Adversities were reported by 53.6% of the sample. A three-factor model of CA dimensions fit the data better for men, and a two-factor model for women. For both genders, the dimension of family maladjustment - encompassing physical abuse, neglect, parental mental disorders, and family violence - was the core cluster of CAs. Women endorsed more CAs than men. Rasch analysis found that sexual abuse, physical illness, parental criminal behavior, parental divorce, and economic adversity were difficult to report in face-to-face interviews.
CONCLUSION: CAs embrace sensitive personal information, clustering of which differed by gender. Acknowledging CAs may have an impact on medical and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood.

Descriptors: Childhood adversities; social environment; gender differences; factor analysis; dimensionality; psychopathology

Potential antidepressant effect of amantadine: a review of preclinical studies and clinical trials
Inara F. Raupp-Barcaro; Maria A. Vital; José C. Galduroz; Roberto Andreatini

OBJECTIVE: Amantadine blocks N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and has dopaminergic and noradrenergic action, a neurochemical profile that suggests its potential as an antidepressant drug. We conducted a systematic review of preclinical and clinical studies addressing the effects of amantadine in animal models of depression and in patients with depression.
METHODS: PubMed, Science Direct, and Web of Science were searched up to September 1, 2017 to identify clinical and preclinical studies. The following search terms were used: "amantadine AND depress*''; "amantadine AND mood''; "amantadine AND animal models AND antidepres*''; and ''amantadine AND (forced swim, learned helplessness, reserpine, chronic mild stress, anhedonia, sucrose preference).''
RESULTS: Amantadine had antidepressant-like effects in animal models and appeared to potentiate the antidepressant effects of other antidepressants. These preclinical findings have received some support from the results of small open-label clinical trials, suggesting that amantadine can reduce depressive symptomatology and potentiate the antidepressant effects of monoaminergic drugs. In addition to its glutamatergic and dopaminergic effects, the potential antidepressant-like effects of amantadine have been linked to molecular and cellular actions, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor), activation of σ1 receptors, decreased corticosterone levels, and decreased inflammatory response to stress.
CONCLUSION: Amantadine is an interesting candidate as new antidepressant drug for the treatment of depression.

Descriptors: Amantadine; animal models; antidepressant; clinical trial; glutamate

Psychometric properties of the modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 in a large Brazilian sample
Paulo R. Nunes-Neto; Cristiano A. Kohler; Felipe B. Schuch; João Quevedo; Marco Solmi; Andrea Murru; Eduard Vieta; Michael Maes; Brendon Stubbs; Andre F. Carvalho

OBJECTIVE: The field of food addiction has attracted growing research attention. The modified Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 (mYFAS 2.0) is a screening tool based on DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorders. However, there is no validated instrument to assess food addiction.
METHODS: The mYFAS 2.0 has been transculturally adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. The data for this study was obtained through an anonymous web-based research platform: participants provided sociodemographic data and answered Brazilian versions of the the mYFAS 2.0 and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11). Analysis included an assessment of the Brazilian mYFAS 2.0's internal consistency reliability, factor structure, and convergent validity in relation to BIS-11 scores.
RESULTS: Overall, 7,639 participants were included (71.3% females; age: 27.2±7.9 years). The Brazilian mYFAS 2.0 had adequate internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89). A single factor solution yielded the best goodness-of-fit parameters for both the continuous and categorical version of the mYFAS 2.0 in confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, mYFAS 2.0 correlated with BIS-11 total scores (Spearman's rho = 0.26, p < 0.001) and subscores.
CONCLUSION: The Brazilian mYFAS 2.0 demonstrated adequate psychometric properties in our sample; however, future studies should further evaluate its discriminant validity.

Descriptors: Food addiction; obesity; validation; Yale Food addiction scale; behavioral addiction; psychiatry

Pituitary gland volumes in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder before and after cognitive-behavioral therapy
Murad Atmaca; Hanefi Yildirim; Seda Yilmaz; Neslihan Caglar; Sema Baykara; Yasemin Kekilli; Filiz Koseoglu; Hakan Turkcapar

OBJECTIVE: The beneficial effects of psychopharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on the brain are not well understood. In a previous study, we found smaller pituitary volumes in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CBT on pituitary gland volume.
METHODS: A total of 81 patients with various anxiety disorders and the same number of healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging, and their pituitary gland volumes were compared at baseline. Pituitary gland volumes were also measured before and after CBT in the patient group.
RESULTS: OCD patients had smaller pituitary gland volumes at baseline than healthy controls (0.54± 0.29 cm3 for OCD patients vs. 0.82±0.30 cm3 for healthy controls; p < 0.001). We found no significant changes in OCD patient pituitary gland volume after the 16-week treatment period, with mean pre- and post-treatment values of 0.54±0.29 cm3 and 0.56±0.32 cm3, respectively (p > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate an absence of post-CBT volumetric changes in the pituitary gland of OCD patients.

Descriptors: Obsessive-compulsive disorder; cognitive behavioral therapy; pituitary gland; psychotherapy; neuroimaging

Sexual compulsivity, anxiety, depression, and sexual risk behavior among treatment-seeking men in São Paulo, Brazil
Marco D.T. Scanavino; Ana Ventuneac; Carmita H.N. Abdo; Hermano Tavares; Maria L.S. Amaral; Bruna Messina; Sirlene C. Reis; Joao P.L.B. Martins; Jeffrey T. Parsons

OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of studies on negative mood states and sexual risk behavior in men of all sexual orientations who seek treatment for excessive sexual behavior (ESB). We aim to examine sexual compulsivity (SC), anxiety, depression, and sexual risk behavior in a treatment-seeking sample of men and controls.
METHODS: We enrolled 88 (37 [42%] gay or bisexual and 51 [58%] heterosexual) ESB outpatients and 64 controls. Assessments included the Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and sexual risk behaviors.
RESULTS: Compared to controls, ESB outpatients showed increased SC, anxiety, and depression, which were correlated. Regarding sex with casual partners, ESB outpatients reported more sexual intercourse, a greater number of partners, more anal intercourse, and unprotected anal intercourse. Anxiety, depression, and SC were associated with protected vaginal intercourse with a main partner, whereas they were associated with unprotected anal intercourse with a casual partner. Depression was associated with unprotected vaginal intercourse with a casual partner. Condomless anal intercourse was predicted by SC and was also reported by the heterosexual ESB outpatients (36%).
CONCLUSION: The data contribute to the field by providing information on men of all sexual orientations who are searching for mental healthcare. The connections among these psychopathological factors and sexual risk behavior have implications for public health, clinicians, and research.

Descriptors: Sexual compulsivity; affect; anxiety; depression; HIV; sexual risk behavior