Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria ISSN print 1516-4446
ISSN on-line 1809-452X
JCR IF 2017: 2.093
Fully open access
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Current issue 2, Volume 40 - Apr/May/Jun/2018


1 - Screening for common mental disorders using the SRQ-20 in Brazil: what are the alternative strategies for analysis?
Maria B. Barreto do Carmo; Leticia M. dos Santos; Caroline A. Feitosa; Rosemeire L. Fiaccone; Nívea B. da Silva; Darci N. dos Santos; Maurício L. Barreto; Leila D. Amorim
Pages: 115 - 122

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) assessed with the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), using the established cutoff point, and comparing it with the results of a joint correspondence factor analysis (CFA) and cluster analysis and of a latent class analysis (LCA).
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in an urban sample of 1,095 women aged 19 to 55 years. Joint CFA-cluster analysis and LCA were used.
RESULTS: We found a high prevalence of CMD, regardless of classification method (37.6% when using the cutoff point; 44.4% and 52% for LCA and joint CFA-cluster, respectively). The alternative analysis strategies describe the cases more efficiently when compared to the traditional cutoff method, especially regarding more severe symptoms. Both alternative strategies also provide a description of the SRQ-20 dimensions in their particularities, which may be useful for the planning and implementation of specific actions in a given population.
CONCLUSION: The SRQ-20 cutoff point seems to underestimate the magnitude of CMD among women. The alternative methods of analysis presented herein highlight the different possibilities of using this important instrument of screening for mental health.

Descriptors: Screening; mental health; multivariate analysis; latent class analysis; correspondence analysis

2 - Clinical outcomes of psychotherapy dropouts: does dropping out of psychotherapy necessarily mean failure?
Rodrigo T. Lopes; Miguel M. Gonçalves; Dana Sinai; Paulo P. Machado
Pages: 123 - 127

OBJECTIVE: A large proportion of psychotherapy patients remain untreated, mostly because they drop out. This study compares the short- and long-term outcomes of patients who dropped out of psychotherapy to those of therapy completers.
METHODS: The sample included 63 patients (23 dropouts and 40 completers) from a controlled clinical trial, which compared narrative therapy vs. cognitive-behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder. Patients were assessed at the eighth session, post-treatment, and at 31-month follow-up.
RESULTS: Dropouts improved less than completers by the last session attended, but continued to improve significantly more than completers during the follow-up period. Some dropout patients improved with a small dose of therapy (17% achieved a clinically significant change before abandoning treatment), while others only achieved clinically significant change after a longer period (62% at 31-month follow-up).
CONCLUSION: These results emphasize the importance of dealing effectively with patients at risk of dropping out of therapy.Patients who dropped out also reported improvement of depressive symptoms without therapy, but took much longer to improve than did patients who completed therapy. This might be attributable to natural remission of depression. Further research should use a larger patient database, ideally gathered by meta-analysis.

Descriptors: Patient dropout; psychotherapy; outcome assessment; unipolar depression

3 - Alcohol-related blackouts among college students: impact of low level of response to alcohol, ethnicity, sex, and environmental characteristics
Priscila D. Gonçalves; Tom L. Smith; Robert M. Anthenelli; George Danko; Marc A. Schuckit
Pages: 128 - 137

OBJECTIVE: To explore how a genetically-influenced characteristic (the level of response to alcohol [LR]), ethnicity, and sex relate to environmental and attitudinal characteristics (peer drinking [PEER], drinking to cope [COPE], and alcohol expectancies [EXPECT]) regarding future alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs).
METHODS: Structural equation models (SEMs) were used to evaluate how baseline variables related to ARB patterns in 462 college students over 55 weeks. Data were extracted from a longitudinal study of heavy drinking and its consequences at a U.S. university.
RESULTS: In the SEM analysis, female sex and Asian ethnicity directly predicted future ARBs (beta weights 0.10 and -0.11, respectively), while all other variables had indirect impacts on ARBs through alcohol quantities (beta weights ~0.23 for European American ethnicity and low LR, 0.21 for cannabis use and COPE, and 0.44 for PEER). Alcohol quantities then related to ARBs with beta = 0.44. The SEM explained 23% of the variance.
CONCLUSION: These data may be useful in identifying college students who are more likely to experience future ARBs over a 1-year period. They enhance our understanding of whether the relationships of predictors to ARBs are direct or mediated through baseline drinking patterns, information that may be useful in prevention strategies for ARBs.

Descriptors: Alcohol; blackout; college students; peer drinking; drinking to cope; drinking behavior; alcohol drinking in college; binge drinking

4 - Can parenting practices predict externalizing behavior problems among children with hearing impairment?
María J. Pino, Rosa A. Castillo, Antonio Raya, Javier Herruzo
Pages: 138 - 144

OBJECTIVE: To identify possible differences in the level of externalizing behavior problems among children with and without hearing impairment and determine whether any relationship exists between this type of problem and parenting practices.
METHODS: The Behavior Assessment System for Children was used to evaluate externalizing variables in a sample of 118 boys and girls divided into two matched groups: 59 with hearing disorders and 59 normal-hearing controls.
RESULTS: Significant between-group differences were found in hyperactivity, behavioral problems, and externalizing problems, but not in aggression. Significant differences were also found in various aspects of parenting styles. A model for predicting externalizing behavior problems was constructed, achieving a predicted explained variance of 50%.
CONCLUSION: Significant differences do exist between adaptation levels in children with and without hearing impairment. Parenting style also plays an important role.

Descriptors: Child psychiatry; families; child rearing; hearing loss; disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders

5 - Childhood emotional and behavior problems and their associations with cesarean delivery
Erigene Rutayisire; Xiaoyan Wu; Kun Huang; Shuman Tao; Yunxiao Chen; Fangbiao Tao
Pages: 145 - 153

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of childhood emotional and behavioral problems and examine their associations with cesarean delivery.
METHODS: Our sample consisted of 8,900 preschoolers from 35 kindergartens in four cities in East China. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and provided other information. Children's emotional and behavioral problems were assessed using five subscales of the SDQ. Mode of delivery was classified as vaginal or cesarean section (CS); in sub-analyses, we divided CS into elective or emergency delivery. Logistic regression was used to examine associations.
RESULTS: A total of 1,209 (13.6%) children had a total SDQ score within abnormal range; 25.5% had peer problems within abnormal range, 9.0% had abnormal emotional symptoms, 13.9% had abnormal conduct problems, 18.9% had abnormal hyperactivity problems, and 16.2% were rated abnormal in pro-social behavior. Overall, 67.3% of the children who participated were delivered by CS. In fully adjusted analysis, CS was significantly associated with abnormal total SDQ score (OR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.10-1.46; p < 0.05) and pro-social behavior (OR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.12-1.45; p < 0.0001). No significant association was found between CS and risk of having conduct problems (OR 1.13; 95%CI 0.98-1.29), peer problems (OR 1.11; 95%CI 0.99-1.24), hyperactivity (OR 1.02; 95%CI 0.91-1.15), or emotional problems (OR 1.06; 95%CI 0.90-1.24).
CONCLUSION: In this sample, CS was associated with risk of behavioral problems, but not with emotional problems. Further research is needed to better understand these associations.

Descriptors: Problem behavior; cesarean section; delivery mode; pregnancy; preschool children

6 - Reappraising the dimensional structure of the PTSD Checklist: lessons from the DSM-IV-based PCL-C
Michael E. Reichenheim; Aline G. Oliveira; Claudia L. Moraes; Evandro S. Coutinho; Ivan Figueira; Gustavo Lobato
Pages: 154 - 162

OBJECTIVE: The dimensional structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively debated, but the literature is still inconclusive and contains gaps that require attention. This article sheds light on hitherto unvisited methodological issues, reappraising several key models advanced for the DSM-IV-based civilian version of the PTSD Checklist (PCL-C) as to their configural and metric structures.
METHODS: The sample comprised 456 women, interviewed at 6-8 weeks postpartum, who attended a high-complexity facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation models (ESEM) were used to evaluate the dimensional structure of the PCL-C.
RESULTS: The original three-factor solution was rejected, along with the four-factor structures most widely endorsed in the literature (PTSD-dysphoria and PTSD-numbing models). Further exploration supported a model comprised of two factors (re-experience/avoidance and numbing/hyperarousal).
CONCLUSION: These findings are at odds with the dimensional structure proposed in both DSM-IV and DSM-5. This also entails a different presumption regarding the latent structure of PTSD and how the PCL should be operationalized.

Descriptors: posttraumatic stress disorder; psychometric tests/interviews; diagnosis and classification; epidemiology; women

7 - Cardiovascular risk and bipolar disorder: factors associated with a positive coronary calcium score in patients with bipolar disorder type 1
Aline R. Wageck; Felipe S. Torres; Clarissa S. Gama; Dayane S. Martins; Ellen Scotton; Ramiro Reckziegel; Monise Costanzi; Regis G. Rosa; Flávio Kapczinski; Maurício Kunz
Pages: 163 - 168

OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with positive coronary calcium score (CCS) in individuals with bipolar disorder type 1.
METHODS: Patients from the Bipolar Disorder Program at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil, underwent computed tomography scanning for calcium score measurement. Clinical and sociodemographic variables were compared between patients according to their CCS status: negative (CCS = 0) or positive (CCS 4 0). Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the association of CCS with number of psychiatric hospitalizations.
RESULTS: Out of 41 patients evaluated, only 10 had a positive CCS. Individuals in the CCS-positive group were older (55.264.2 vs. 43.1610.0 years;p = 0.001) and had more psychiatric hospitalizations (4.763.0 vs. 2.662.5;p = 0.04) when compared with CCS-negative subjects. The number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations correlated positively with CCS (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Age and number of psychiatric hospitalizations were significantly associated with higher CCS, which might be a potential method for diagnosis and stratification of cardiovascular disease in bipolar patients. There is a need for increased awareness of risk assessment in this population.

Descriptors: Bipolardisorder; cardiovasculardiseases; diagnostictechniques; cardiovascular; coronary disease

8 - Effects of N-acetylcysteine on amphetamine-induced sensitization in mice
Ana P. Herrmann; Roberta Andrejew; Radharani Benvenutti; Clarissa S. Gama; Elaine Elisabetsky
Pages: 169 - 173

OBJECTIVE: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is beneficial in psychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit mesolimbic dopamine hyperfunction consequent to an endogenous sensitization process. This sensitization can be modeled in rodents by repeated exposure to psychostimulants, provoking an enduring amplified response at subsequent exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC on amphetamine sensitization in mice.
METHODS: D-amphetamine was administered to C57BL/6 mice three times a week for 3 weeks; the dose was increased weekly from 1 to 3 mg/kg. NAC (60 mg/kg) or saline was administered intraperitoneally before saline or amphetamine during the second and third weeks. After a 4-week washout period, latent inhibition (LI) and the locomotor response to amphetamine 2 mg/kg were assessed.
RESULTS: Sensitization disrupted LI and amplified the locomotor response; NAC disrupted LI in control mice. In sensitized animals, NAC attenuated the enhanced locomotion but failed to prevent LI disruption.
CONCLUSION: NAC warrants consideration as a candidate for early intervention in ultra-high risk subjects due to its safety profile and the relevance of its mechanism of action. Supplementing this proposition, we report that NAC attenuates sensitization-induced locomotor enhancement in mice. The finding that NAC disrupted LI incites a cautionary note and requires clarification.

Descriptors: Schizophrenia; acetylcysteine; amphetamine

9 - Gender incongruence: a comparative study using ICD-10 and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria
Bianca M. Soll; Rebeca Robles-García; Angelo Brandelli-Costa; Daniel Mori; Andressa Mueller; Anna M. Vaitses-Fontanari; Dhiordan Cardoso-da-Silva; Karine Schwarz; Maiko Abel-Schneider; Alexandre Saadeh; Maria-Inês-Rodrigues Lobato
Pages: 174 - 180

OBJECTIVE: To compare the presence of criteria listed in the DSM-5 and ICD-10 diagnostic manuals in a Brazilian sample of transgender persons seeking health services specifically for physical transition.
METHODS: This multicenter cross-sectional study included a sample of 103 subjects who sought services for gender identity disorder in two main reference centers in Brazil. The method involved a structured interview encompassing the diagnostic criteria in the two manuals.
RESULTS: The results revealed that despite theoretical disagreement about the criteria, the manuals overlap regarding diagnosis confirmation; the DSM-5 was more inclusive (97.1%) than the ICD-10 (93.2%) in this population.
CONCLUSIONS: Although there is no consensus on diagnostic criteria on transgenderism in the diversity of social and cultural contexts, more comprehensive diagnostic criteria are evolving due to society's increasing inclusivity.

Descriptors: Diagnosis and classification; gender differences; minority issues and cross-cultural psychiatry; history of psychiatry; social and political issues

10 - Support vector machine-based classification of neuroimages in Alzheimer's disease: direct comparison of FDG-PET, rCBF-SPECT and MRI data acquired from the same individuals
Luiz K. Ferreira; Jane M. Rondina; Rodrigo Kubo; Carla R. Ono; Claudia C. Leite; Jerusa Smid; Cassio Bottino; Ricardo Nitrini; Geraldo F. Busatto; Fabio L. Duran; Carlos A. Buchpiguel
Pages: 181 - 191

OBJECTIVE: To conduct the first support vector machine (SVM)-based study comparing the diagnostic accuracy of T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (T1-MRI), F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and regional cerebral blood flow single-photon emission computed tomography (rCBF-SPECT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD).
METHOD: Brain T1-MRI, FDG-PET and rCBF-SPECT scans were acquired from a sample of mild AD patients (n=20) and healthy elderly controls (n=18). SVM-based diagnostic accuracy indices were calculated using whole-brain information and leave-one-out cross-validation.
RESULTS: The accuracy obtained using PET and SPECT data were similar. PET accuracy was 68~71% and area under curve (AUC) 0.77~0.81; SPECT accuracy was 68B74% and AUC 0.75~0.79, and both had better performance than analysis with T1-MRI data (accuracy of 58%, AUC 0.67). The addition of PET or SPECT to MRI produced higher accuracy indices (68~74%; AUC: 0.74~0.82) than T1-MRI alone, but these were not clearly superior to the isolated neurofunctional modalities.
CONCLUSION: In line with previous evidence, FDG-PET and rCBF-SPECT more accurately identified patients with AD than T1-MRI, and the addition of either PET or SPECT to T1-MRI data yielded increased accuracy. The comparable SPECT and PET performances, directly demonstrated for the first time in the present study, support the view that rCBF-SPECT still has a role to play in AD diagnosis.

Descriptors: Alzheimer's disease; support vector machine; MRI; FDG-PET; SPECT

11 - Virtual reality exposure therapy for fear of driving: analysis of clinical characteristics, physiological response, and sense of presence
Rafael T. da Costa; Marcele R. de Carvalho; Pedro Ribeiro; Antonio E. Nardi
Pages: 192 - 199

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reactions of women with driving phobia to a therapeutic program of scheduled virtual reality exposure treatment (VRET) sessions.
METHODS: The study intervention consisted of a computer game with car-driving scenarios that included several traffic situations. We investigated the participants' sense of presence, subjective distress, and physiological responses during eight virtual-reality exposures. We also evaluated clinical characteristics, driving cognitions, and quality of life in the participants.
RESULTS: Thirteen women were selected. Eight were able to complete the protocol. After VRET, there was a decrease in the frequency of distorted thoughts and state anxiety scores, as well as a slight improvement in quality of life. Subjective discomfort scores, heart rate variation, and sense of presence scores confirmed that there was sense of presence in the virtual reality environment.
CONCLUSION: All patients showed some degree of improvement and demonstrated different levels of anxiety in subsequent in vivo driving experiences. Our findings suggest that VRET could be used to facilitate in vivo exposure, because it can induce presence/immersion and reduce anxiety in patients with specific phobia. Furthermore, VRET is not associated with any type of risk.

Descriptors: Virtual reality; behavior therapy; fear of driving

12 - Conceptions and practices of an integrative treatment for substance use disorders involving Amazonian medicine: traditional healers' perspectives
Ilana Berlowitz; Christian Ghasarian; Heinrich Walt; Fernando Mendive; Vanessa Alvarado; Chantal Martin-Soelch
Pages: 200 - 209

OBJECTIVE: The harmful use of psychoactive substances represents one of today's largest public health problems. Yet, in spite of its global relevance, current treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) is still not entirely successful. The purpose of this study was to investigate alternative treatments and conceptions from traditional Amazonian medicine adapted to SUDs.
METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 practicing experts at a well-established addiction treatment center in the Peruvian Amazon and performed qualitative content analysis on the collected data. Main categories were deductively defined and corresponding subcategories inductively developed.
RESULTS: Our findings revealed characteristic features and consequences, causes and antecedents, and treatment methods of SUDs as the main categories. Overall, concepts of disease etiology bore resemblance with contemporary biopsychosocial models of SUDs. The Amazonian therapeutic means however differed markedly from current Western ones. The main methods involved dietary retreats, healing ceremonies, and purging rituals. The integral application of Amazonian methods, as well as their traditional implementation according to prescribed ritual protocols, were emphasized by the experts as crucial for efficacy and safety of treatment delivery.
CONCLUSION: We suggest further scientific attention to these therapies, including clinical studies, for which our results provide conceptual underpinnings. Findings from this research expand the cross-cultural understanding of SUDs and, in the long run, may enhance its treatment options.

Descriptors: Substance use disorders; addiction; traditional Amazonian medicine; illness concepts; expert interviews; addiction treatment; alternative medicine; Peru; Amazon

13 - Portuguese and Brazilian guidelines for the treatment of depression: exercise as medicine
Lara F. Carneiro; Maria P. Mota; Felipe Schuch; Andrea Deslandes; José Vasconcelos-Raposo
Pages: 210 - 211

Depression is a psychiatric disorder and major contributor to the burden of disease worldwide. The strength of evidence of the benefits of exercise as a therapeutic intervention for patients with depression has expanded in the last 30 years. In fact, the available evidence indicates exercise can not only help manage depressive symptoms, but also effect significant improvements in other health outcomes. Clinical guidelines including such recommendations have been issued by different agencies, namely the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), the American Psychiatric Association (APA), and the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP). With increasing recognition of the benefits of exercise and shortcomings of healthcare systems, other countries, such as Sweden and Canada, have included exercise in their national guidelines for treating depression. Unfortunately, progress in incorporating exercise guidelines into clinical practice has been slow, and Portugal and Brazil reflect this reality. In this update, we reemphasize the importance of bridging this gap and integrating exercise into clinical practice guidelines as an essential component of depression treatment.

Descriptors: Depression; treatment; exercise; guidelines

14 - Plasma IL-17A levels in patients with late-life depression
Smita Saraykar; Bo Cao; Lucelia S. Barroso; Kelly S. Pereira; Laiss Bertola; Mariana Nicolau; Jessica D. Ferreira; Natalia S. Dias; Erica L. Vieira; Antonio L. Teixeira; Ana Paula M. Silva; Breno S. Diniz
Pages: 212 - 215

OBJECTIVE: A consistent body of research has confirmed that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1 β, the soluble IL-2 receptor, and C-reactive protein, compared to controls; however, there is limited information on IL-17A in MDD. Moreover, information about IL-17A in older populations, i.e., patients with late-life depression (LLD), is conspicuously missing from the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of IL-17A in LLD.
METHODS: A convenience sample of 129 individuals, 74 with LLD and 55 non-depressed controls, were enrolled in this study. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare plasma IL-17A levels between LLD and controls subjects, and Spearman's rank order correlation was used to investigate correlation of these levels with clinical, neuropsychological, and cognitive assessments.
RESULTS: Plasma IL-17A levels were not statistically different between LLD patients and controls (p = 0.94). Among all subjects (LLD + control), plasma IL-17A did not correlate significantly with depressive symptoms (rho = -0.009, p = 0.92) but a significant correlation was observed with cognitive assessments (rho = 0.22, p = 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support an association between plasma IL-17A levels and LLD. Nevertheless, IL-17A may be associated with cognitive impairment in LLD patients. If this finding is confirmed in future longitudinal studies, modulation of the T-helper 17 cell (Th17) immune response may be a treatment target for cognitive impairment in this population.

Descriptors: Depression; cytokines; cognitive impairment; immunology

15 - Gender differences of cannabis smoking on serum leptin levels: population-based study
Fernanda P. Moreira; Carolina D. Wiener; Jacqueline F. de Oliveira; Luciano D.M. Souza; Ricardo A. da Silva; Luis V. Portela; Diogo R. Lara; Karen Jansen; Jean Pierre Oses
Pages: 216 - 219

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the serum leptin levels in cannabis smokers.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study of participants between the ages of 18 and 35 years. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire covering sociodemographic data and the use of psychoactive substances. Leptin levels were measured using a commercial ELISA kit.
RESULTS: Of the 911 participants, 6.7% were identified as cannabis smokers and had significantly lower leptin levels (p = 0.008). When stratified by gender, there was a significant decrease in leptin levels among male smokers (p = 0.039).
CONCLUSION: Cannabis smoking was linked to leptin levels in men, suggesting that the response to biological signals may be different between men and women.

Descriptors: Cannabis sativa; leptin; young adults; gender

16 - Stress, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder in migrants: a comprehensive review
Lineth H.U. Bustamante; Raphael O. Cerqueira; Emilie Leclerc; Elisa Brietzke
Pages: 220 - 225

OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence supporting the association between migration and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Considering the growing population of migrants and the particularities of providing culturally sensitive mental health care for these persons, clinicians should be kept up to date with the latest information regarding this topic. The objective of this study was to critically review the literature regarding migration, trauma and PTSD, and mental health services.
METHODS: The PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, and ISI Web of Science databases were searched for articles published in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French, and indexed from inception to 2017. The following keywords were used: migration, mental health, mental health services, stress, posttraumatic stress disorder, and trauma.
RESULTS: Migration is associated with specific stressors, mainly related to the migratory experience and to the necessary process of acculturation occurring in adaptation to the host country. These major stressors have potential consequences in many areas, including mental health. The prevalence of PTSD among migrants is very high (47%), especially among refugees, who experience it at nearly twice the rate of migrant workers.
CONCLUSIONS: Mental health professionals must be trained to recognize and provide appropriate care for posttraumatic and/or stress-related disorders among migrants.

Descriptors: PTSD; migration; stress; trauma; mental health services

17 - Discriminant analysis of caregivers' psychiatric symptoms according to offspring psychopathology
Camila T. Matsuzaka; Milton L. Wainberg; Andrea Norcini Pala; Marcelo F. Mello
Pages: 226 - 227


18 - Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of major depression during pregnancy
Ygor Arzeno Ferrão; Renata de Melo Felipe da Silva
Pages: 227 - 228